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Analytical tools.


Analytical tools used at Bellerophon | Gemlab


Backbones of gemmology, the microscope enables gemologists to make an diagnostic regarding the genesis, absence, or indications of treatments, and origin determinations, by studying the inclusions under high magnification.


-Treatment detection

-Origin determination

Digital Microscope

The digital microscope enables gemologist to study a gemstone from anywhere in the world, and magnification power is greatly increased from a regular microscope, our Keyences VHX6000 enable us to observe inside a gemstone at 5,000x magnification.



The refractometer measures the extent of light refraction, as light passes through the gemstone from the air it will slow down and create refraction, the severity of the refraction will depend on the mineral composition, very useful information for identification.


Specific gravity 

Specific Gravity (SG) is the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water. It measures the density of a mineral, based on the earth's gravity, which depends on the chemical composition and crystal structure of a gemstone, very valuable information for identification.



The polariscope enables us to distinguish between isotropic and anisotropic transparent minerals.


Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

The FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects high-resolution spectral data over a wide spectral range. Bellerophon uses it to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption of a gemstone, Extremely important information for identification, treatments detection, and genesis.


-Genesis of emerald for exemple

-Treatment detection such as hydrogen diffusion in corundum

-Origin determination

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Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy provides a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. Raman spectroscopy relies upon the inelastic scattering of photons, knowns as Raman scattering. A source of monochromatic light, laser of 532nm, or 785nm interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons, or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. 


-Genesis of Quartz for exemple

-Treatment detection such as oil and resin 

-Origin determination


Photoluminescence Spectroscopy

Photoluminescence spectroscopy, abbreviated as PL and the laser used such as PL313, PL532 is light emission from a gemstone after the absorption of photons. it is one of many forms of luminescence and is initiated by photoexcitation (photons that excite electrons to a higher energy level in an atom).


-Genesis of Spinel for example 

-Treatment detection


Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

In EDXRF spectroscopy, all of the elements in the gemstone are excited simultaneously, and an energy dispersive detector in combination with a multi-channel analyzer is used to simultaneously collect the fluorescence radiation emitted from the sample and then separate the different energies of the characteristic radiation from each of the different elements. it enables gemologists to know and quantify (semi-quantitatively) all elements present in samples from Sodium (Na) to Uranium (U).

-Genesis of corundum for example 

-Treatment detection such as lead glass

-Origin determination


Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is atomic emission spectroscopy that uses a high-energy laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites a small part of the gemstone (>50 microns).

-Treatment detection for Beryllium diffusion in corundum

-Origin determination of emerald

Ultraviolet-visible near-infrared spectroscopy

UV-vis refers to the absorption in part of the ultraviolet and the full visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It uses light in the visible range. The absorption in the visible range directly affects the perceived colour of the elements involved (chromophores). 


-Origin determination