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Emerald is a gemstone variety of the mineral beryl, with a vivid green colour caused by the presence of chromium and sometimes vanadium. It is a popular gemstone and is often used in jewelry, particularly in engagement rings. Emeralds are also the traditional birthstone for the month of May.
Emeralds have been prized throughout history, with ancient civilizations such as the Incas, Aztecs, and Egyptians all valuing the gemstone. The Egyptians believed that the green colour represented fertility and rebirth, and Cleopatra was known to have a great love for emeralds. In medieval Europe, emeralds were thought to have healing powers and were used to treat various ailments.
Emeralds have a hardness of 7.5 to 8 on the Mohs scale, making them quite durable. They have a specific gravity of 2.7 to 2.8 and a refractive index of 1.57 to 1.58. They also have a vitreous to greasy luster and are typically transparent to translucent.
Emeralds are known for their intense green colour, which can range from a bluish-green to a yellowish-green. The colour is caused by the presence of chromium and sometimes vanadium in the crystal structure of the beryl mineral. The most valuable emeralds are those with a vivid to deep, rich green colour that is evenly distributed throughout the gemstone.
Emeralds are almost always treated with oils or resins to improve their clarity and to fill any surface-reaching fractures or cavities, which is a common occurrence in natural emeralds. The use of oils and resins is considered an accepted industry practice, but it is important to be disclosed. Heat treatment and dyed is extremely rarely used to enhance the colour of low-quality emeralds, but this practice is possible.
The most famous emeralds come from Colombia, where they have been mined for millenia. Other significant sources of emeralds include Brazil, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Madagascar, and Russia.
Synthetic Emeralds are man-made emerald that are produced in a laboratory setting using advanced technological processes. It can be produced synthetically through a process known as flux growth or hydrothermal synthesis. These synthetic emeralds have the same physical and chemical properties as natural emeralds.
Emeralds are primarily used in jewelry, particularly in engagement rings and other high-end pieces. They are also used in decorative objects and as a symbol of wealth and luxury. In addition to their use in jewelry, emeralds have also been used for their supposed healing properties and are believed to promote good health, well-being, and success.