Citrine is a yellow to orange variety of the mineral quartz. It is a popular gemstone that is widely used in jewellery and decorative objects. Citrine is a durable gemstone with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale, making it suitable for daily wear.
Citrine has a rich history and is often associated with wealth, success, and prosperity. In ancient times, it was believed to have healing properties and was used as a talisman to ward off negative energy. It was also thought to promote good health, vitality, and creativity.
During the Art Deco period of the 1920s and 1930s, citrine was a popular gemstone that was often used in jewellery designs. It was frequently paired with diamonds and other gemstones to create stunning and modern pieces.
Citrine has a chemical composition of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and a trigonal crystal system. It has a vitreous lustre and a transparent to translucent appearance. Citrine's colour can range from a pale yellow to a deep amber-orange, depending on the concentration of iron within the crystal structure. It has a specific gravity of 2.65 and a refractive index of 1.544 to 1.553.
Citrine's colour is caused by the presence of iron within the crystal structure. The colour can vary from a pale yellow to a deep orange-brown, depending on the concentration of iron. Natural citrine is typically a pale yellow colour, while the deeper orange-brown colours are often the result of heat treatment.
Most citrine on the market today is heat-treated amethyst or smoky quartz. The heat treatment changes the colour of the gemstone from purple or brown to yellow or orange. Heat-treated citrine is just as durable as natural citrine, and the treatment is considered permanent.
The primary sources of citrine are Brazil, Madagascar, and Russia. Citrine can also be found in Spain, France, Scotland, and the United States.
Synthetic amethyst is a lab-grown version of the natural amethyst gemstone. It is made using a methods called hydrothermal synthesis. Synthetic amethyst can be virtually identical to natural amethyst in terms of its physical and optical properties, including its hardness, refractive index, and colour. We differentiate between synthetic and natural amethyst by quantitative analysis of sodium and boron by X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Citrine is a popular gemstone for use in jewellery, particularly for engagement rings and other fine jewellery. It is also used for decorative purposes, such as in sculptures, vases, and other ornamental objects.